How much time is required for someone who is diagnosed with type II diabetes to begin experiencing nerve problems?

It varies. Some people with diabetes never get neuropathy (nerve damage). Some people may have had neuropathy for several years before they develop diabetes. Working to keep blood sugars under control can reduce the risk for developing neuropathy, or delay it or make it less severe.
Depends. It depends on how well you control your diabetes and how long you actually had it prior to being diagnosed. A well controlled diabetic that is detected early can avoid most complications, including this one. It is also possible that a diabetic may have this complication and others are the time of diagnosis.