I'm wondering if I am a teenager is smoking weed ten times going to seriously damage me for life?

It depends... 10 times a day, 10 times a week, 10 times a month? It really depends on the frequency. Marijuana smoke is still smoke, and has carcinogens just like tobacco smoke has. So yes, excessive, regular marijuana smoking over years can cause serious health problems.
Mental problems. Beside the lung problems the continued use is known to cause problems with remembering, being able to think and act on these thoughts generally to improve yourself and get ahead in making the full potential of your inborn abilities mainly mentally. If you have just used for 10 separate times i would not worry but i would not continue or actually hang out with people who still using. Luck in stoppi.
Weed side effects. "smoked marijuana damages the brain, heart, lungs, and immune system. It impairs learning and interferes with memory, perception, and judgment. Smoked marijuana contains cancer-causing compounds and has been implicated in a high percentage of automobile crashes and workplace accidents.".
It could. 20% of people who smoke marijuana become psychotic. Could happen the 1st or 2nd time or after many times, Psychosis could be brief or the beginning of a life long illness-kind of a big risk to take.