Is there a new GI super bug going around presenting with excessive vomiting and/or diarrhea without fever and lasting only 24 hours?

Norovirus. This is one of the seasons for highly infectious, but fortunately self-limited GI illnesses. Viruses are a common cause for such symptoms. The norwalk virus, norovirus, adenovirus and others can cause these kinds of symptoms. Staying hydrated, getting plenty of rest and washing hands before eating and after using the bathroom are very important.
New Super Bugs. The center for disease control and prevention (cdc) has not reported any new super infections. However there are a great many illnesses that can cause vomiting and diarrhea.