What type? Repair depends on the type of ventricular septal defect .. There's perimembranous, av canal type, subaortic and muscular. Need to know if double outlet right ventricle or left ventricle present. Is there a concomitant right ventricular outflow tract obstruction?. Need to stop the heart and saw a patch, were to open the heart depends on type of vsd and associated defects. Timing of repair varies.
Surgery. In general surgery is required. Investigationally, this can be repaired by inserting a catheter into a blood vessel in the groin, up into the heart, and across the defect. A closure device is then opened up and occludes the vsd. This is commonly used for atrial septal defect but technically more difficult for a ventricular septal defect.