Who should I see about one slightly bulging eye and sudden lazy eye if I've had an eye exam and was just prescribed prism glasses?

Ophthalmologist. You need to see a medical eye doctor, not an optometrist. The most common cause of a bulging eye is thyroid disease, so you may want to involve your medical doctor as well!
Acute Graves Disease. This is most likely acute graves disease but can be brain disease origin. You need to see an ophthalmologist quickly and probably will need the services of others also. This mix of signs and symptoms is extremely bothersome.
See eye doctor. Your description sounds like thyroid eye disease or an orbital tumor. Other issues can present like this as well. You need further evaluation to determine the exact cause, initiate proper treatment, and prevent permanent loss of vision.