Yesterday I got a sharp pain on my left foot toe. Happened a few times. Really hurt. What was it?  

See a podiatrist. I would suggest that a doctor of podiatric medicine would be a better choice for evaluation of your problem than an orthopedic foot and ankle surgeon. Podiatrists evaluate and treat all manner of foot and ankle problems that don't necessarily involve orthopedic (bone and joint) problems. These include skin and nail problems, nerve and circulatory problems as well.
Possible. Neuroma can cause this type of pain. See a podiatrist for evaluation and treatment.
Get diagnosed first. There are a number of things that can cause pain in the feet. This is a very nonspecific symptom. I recommend that someone pain in this areas should be seen by orthopedic foot and ankle surgeon for a definitive diagnosis so that appropriate treatment can be started. You can find one in your area at www.Aofas.Org.
Arthritis? Most common cause of this is inflammation in the toe (arthritis). Anti-inflammatories if not contraindicated are effective such as Ibuprofen taken with meals as 2 tabs three times daily. Safer alternative would be cats claw (herbal) taken in large quantity to reduce inflammation. Not as fast as ibuprofen. If the problem persists seek help for xrays and labs to clarify the problem.