Trauma to nerve. When you stub your toe it is actually blunt force trauma to all the tissues in toe. The injury may not be bad enough to fracture bone but it can result in contusion-a 'deep bruise' to the soft tissues-skin muscle, tendon and nerves in the toe. Unlike the other tissues, nerve healing can take months. If the nerve was not severed, as happens in cuts to toe, the numbness should resolve.
Nerve trauma. When nerves are bruised or the nearby tissues swell and pinch the nerve, you can get numbness, tingling or sharp or burning pain. To help the nerve heal, massage and exercise the area as able. Consider chiropractic. Make sure you are getting your b vitamins, zinc, vit c & e, and (if not contraindicated) Aspirin daily to help circulation and healing.