Special testing. Pneumonia is a general term for any lung infection caused by a variety of pathogens (bacteria, virus, fungus or parasites). Tuberculosis (TB) is a very specific type of infection caused by a unique bacteria called mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tb may occasionally spread outside the lung affecting almost any other part of the body. Special testing in a lab is required to prove that someone has tb.
See below. Pneumonia causes cough, fever, sometimes shortness of breath and chest pains. Rales are heard on auscultation of the lungs and an infiltrate is seen on chest x-ray. Tb is a more chronic illness characterized by cough, night sweats, weight loss, a positive PPD skin test or gamma interferon release test with apical infiltrates on cxr.Sputum smears and cultures are + afb/tb.Tb can cause pneumonia too.