Can antabuse (disulfiram) cause short term memory loss if someone has taken it with alcohol or in general?

No. Epocrates literature do not mention it as side effect. Alcohol is the one to blame for memory loss. It is very common to have lapses ( mental lagoons) of forgetting what happened recently ( the night before for example) because of drinking alcohol. An exaggeration of this is shown in the movies.
Not reported. Antabuse (disulfiram) can cause a serious reaction when taken with alcohol, but memory loss has not been reported. Alcohol itself can sometimes cause short term memory loss, especially if used in excess.