Surgeries...again... Fixing a cleft palate typically requires a number of surgeries as the patient grows. These are usually bone grafting surgeries combined with a prosthetic called a palatal obturator (depending on the severity). Speach pathologists are frequently also involved.
Carefully. The goal of cleft palate surgery is to 1) re-orient the muscles of the soft palate to allow for normal speech development and 2) close the cleft itself. There are a number of different techniques to accomplish these goals, and your child's surgeon should be able to explain them to you before surgery.
Surgery. The area is opened up and set up to allow new tissue, natural and transplanted and synthetic, to fill the void.