Many ways. Blood transfusion, sex, intravenous drug use with infected needle, post exposure needle stick (needle that was used for injecting some one who is infected with hepatitis b), although not all needle sticks will result into an infection.
Yes. As long as there is circulating virus-- it can be transmitted through bodyfluids.
Yes but unlikely. Vaccinations aren't 100% effective but typically one is protected if the antibodies are high enough from the vaccination. A person vaccinated should be safe from infection but it can't be guaranteed.
Unlikely. But not impossible.
Hepatitis B. Hepatitis b is a virus that tends to infect the liver in humans. Transmission from person to person is by intimate contact (sexual activity) or blood exchange. There is a readily available blood test to see if you have it, and there is a vaccination available (3 shots over 6 months) to prevent you from ever getting it. Hepatitis b can lead to chronic infection and cirrhosis, possibly cancer.
Most resolve. Spontaneous resolution of acute hep b infection is common, but must be followed carefully to make sure is not becoming chronic active hepatitis, which can be treated, if not cured. Do this now, because to ignore this disease can have lethal consequences.
Hepatitis B. There is only one cause: an infection with the virus that is known as hepatitis b.
Sorry. Hbv can cause acute hepatitis which generally runs its course over several weeks but some cases become chronic, often the ones with few or no symptoms. Acute HBV infection is not generally treated but there are medications to treat chronic HBV if need be. There is no fast cure.
A virus. The hepatitis b virus is transmitted via blood transfusion or other blood exposures, sexually, and at the time of delivery from mother to child. It can cause chronic infection which may result in cirrhosis and even liver cancer. There is a vaccine to prevent infection licensed in the usa in 1982 and there are some medications that can be used to treat chronic infection.