Needle is inserted. Into your biliary system and they inject a radioopaque dye. They take xray pictures.
Cholangiogram. Percutaneous means through the skin. Cholangiogram means they are putting a contrast into the billiary tree/ ducts to check for obstruction. Definition: an x-ray film of the bile ducts produced after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium. A cholangiogram is routinely performed before or after biliary tract surgery. A postoperative radiogram may be made after injecting an iodinated contrast.
Not much really. You should be somewhat sedated for the procedure and if not then (of course) there is going to be local anesthetic administered. You should feel very little discomfort.
Painful. They put a needle into your biliary system with anesthetic locally but most people doe non invasive imaging first. You should consult your doctor.
No, but... There are less invasive ways to image the biliary tree, like ultrasound, ERCP (by a gastroenterologist) and mrcp (mri). If there is some blockage, drainage can usually be achieved by a gastroenterologist, with percutaneous drainage reserved for cases that cannot be treated by a gastroenterologist. While percutaneous biliary imaging and interventions do not have high risk, less risky options exist.
Several. Bile may leak out of the bile ducts, infection an bleeding are the most common.