How is a heart valve surgically repaired?

Depends which valve. Repair most commonly is done on mitral valve, especially when mitral prolapse is present. The excess, "floppy" tissue causing the valve to prolapse is excised to make leaflets more taught. Sometimes an artificial ring is inserted around the base of the leaflets to cinch the whole apparatus together, if it has become dilated, preventing leaflets from closing up against each other.
Depeds which valve. Repair most commonly is done on mitral valve, especially when mitral prolapse is present. The excess, "floppy" tissue causing the valve to prolapse is excised to make leaflets more taught. Sometimes an artificial ring is inserted around the base of the leaflets to cinch the whole apparatus together, if it has become dilated, preventing leaflets from closing up against each other.

Related Questions

How risky is a heart valve replacement surgery on an obese person?

Increased if very. Obesity may complicate not only the mechanics of the surgery, but the anesthetic, respiratory and healing processes after such major open heart surgery. The risks go up with severity of obesity and if obesity related conditions like diabetes or sleep apnea are present. Transcatheter valve procedures can minimize the risk, but are less widely available and applicable. Read more...
Heart valve. Hard to give a number, but being obese definitely increases your risk during and after heart valve surgery. Read more...