Several. If a cardiologist suspects coronary artery blockage the first step will be a very complete history. A nuclear stress test is a common diagnostic test and cardiac ct angiograms are becoming more common. The next step is usually a diagnostic cardiac catheterizaiton. Also since approximately 80% of coronary artery disease, cad, patients have peripheral vascular disease, pvd, that will need eval to.
Stress test. To test for obstructed coronary arteries we use various tests. An exercise stress test can indicate obstruction, if done with imaging either echo or nuclear it becomes more sensitive and specific. When we need to see the arteries we use angiography, either flouroscopic or computerized tomographic. The clinical state of the patient suggests which testing is appropriate.
Invasive and non. Coronary blockage is defined as enough narrowing to cause symptoms, or to show up on a stress test. Stress tests look for signs of reduced heart muscle oxygen supply (e.g. Ekg changes during exercise, weak heart squeezing on echo, or nuclear perfusion defects). Angiography ("cardiac cath") is invasive, injecting dye into the arteries to image blockages, and stents can be inserted at the same time.
Many tests. With your age -- exercise tolerance test is advisable.
By referring. The best way to have a coronary blockage diagnosed is to be able to obtain a good history, physcial exam and laboratory studies. Since, the diagnosis can be challenging (as not all patients present with typical symptoms) referral to a specialist (cardiologist) becomes necessary to ultimately make the diagnosis.
God Only knows. That is indeed a good question. ...But best be answered by the specialist in that field ''alternative medicine''.
Treatment of CAD. Treatment falls into 3 categories. Medical therapy, angioplasty, and coronary bypass surgery. Medical therapy with Aspirin and cholesterol-lowering medications along with other medications usually forms the basis of treatment with angioplasty (stents) and bypass surgery reserved for those patients who do not respond fully to medical therapy.
3. Medication, percutaneous intervention (e.g. Balloon angioplasty with or without the placement of bare metal or drug eluting stent) or coronary artery by-pass surgery. Those are the 3 treatments.
My coronary arteries are highly calcified. Does this mean that there is blockage? Other than angiogram, is there a less invasive test to show block?
Angioangiogram. Usually calcification and coronary artery blockages go hand in hand. You have already had the gold standard test-the angiogram. There are less invasive tests e.g. Coronary ct scan, which usually shows calcium but not as sensitive or specfic as a angiogram.
No. No, nothing that has been proven to work.
Yes- individualzed. While there are no research studies proving homeopathy clears atherosclerosis, many homeopaths report success & there are published case reports demonstrating dramatic improvements such as these: www. Feg. Unesp. Br/~ojs/index. Php/ijhdr/article/viewfile/337/391 however, homeopathy is highly individualized-10 people may need 10 different remedies, so I advise seeing a qualified homeopath. See comment:.
Can only using stress test clarify existence of coronary artery disease (blokage due to high LDL, low HDL)?
Stress test is good. Stress test is designed to detect coronary artery disease. It is not a perfect test, but very good. If you have a normal test you are very unlikely to have any significant fixed blockage of any coronary artery. Blockage is not due to high LDL or low HDL - there are associations, but causality is another story.