Yes. Well it is rare to start with, hard to diagnose, and probably less common these days since tb, a major cause, is less common.
Yes. Less in the developed world. Tuberculosis still exists and is still a cause. Other causes are possible, but less frequent.
Cath/MRI. Constrictive pericarditis can be suggested by findings on physical exam, chest x-ray and echocardiogram. A cardiac catheterization can provide more conclusive data. A cardiac magnetic resonance image (MRI) is perhaps the gold standard fro measuring the pericardium and diagnosing constrictive pericarditis. A cardiac ct can also be helpful.
Echo or Cath. History, swelling and venous congestion of head, neck liver, etc. Study by echo may suggest cardiac cath and pressure measurements confirm.
Limited treatment. Constrictive pericarditis describes a situation in which the sac around the heart has gotten very stiff - usually as a result of prior inflammation from either infection or maybe open heart surgery - and as a result does not allow the heart muscle to expand whenever it needs to in order to accept more blood returning from the body or the lung. Surgery is the only effective treatment once symptoms.
Pericardium. The pericardium has to be removed surgically.
Salt. No real food restriction, but less salt may be helpful, it does not precipitate chf.
Surgery. You will need definite surgery.
Passive congestion. High right sided pressures caused by the constiction cause blood pressue in the hepatic vein to be high, causing the liver to swell from passive congestion.
Constrictive pericar. Causes a decrease of inflow of blood into the right atrium and right ventricle so blood backs up into the liver.
Pericarditis. Constrictive pericarditis involves stiffening/thickening/hardening of the pericardium or "heart sack". This can be caused by many disease processes. Constrictive pericarditis results in restricting the filling of the heart which in turn may cause shortness of breath, swelling etc..
Fibrosis and scar. The heart is wrapped in a double layer of thick fibrous tissue called the pericardium. Normally only a few drops of lubricating fluid is present in this potential space. Following an infection or radiation or trauma (or a few other causes), the two surfaces scar down and don't allow the heart to fill with blood during diastole which "constricts" it and causes a form of congestive heart failure.
Infections and other. This is a stiffening of the normally pliable sac that holds the heart. Infections in the fluid around the heart, and scarring conditions that have no known cause can cause this sac to stiffen and this results in incomplete filling of the heart between beats. This lack of filling can lead to heart failure, as the heart is incapable of pumping blood as efficiently. It is a rare condition.
Depends on severity. Severe constrictive pericardiris can be treated with surgery called a pericardiotomy where they strip off the sack around the heart to relieve the consrtiction, .
Surgery. Most true constrictive pericarditis needs removal of a major portion of the pericardial sac.