When I perform oral sex on him my throat hurts pretty bad for the next couple of days, could this be gonorrhea?

Yes, see a doctor. It is possible to get gonorrhea in the throat, and many doctors won't think to test for it, as it requires special testing. Please see your doctor or go to a local city or state run health department for appropriate testing and treatment. Good luck.
No. Gonorrhea takes several days to incubate before symptoms occur. Seems like you're being too frisky with your technique.