Another name for the long-term, cumulative effects of recurrent mild traumatic brain injury
is "chronic traumatic encephalopathy
the very first description of cte was in 1928 in "punch drunk" boxers. At that time, the condition was called dementia
pugilistica. The description included symptoms and findings similar to both parkinson disease and alzheimer disease, both of which are progressive, degenerative neurological conditions.
More recently, a paper published in the journal neurosurgery
, called "chronic traumatic encephalopathy in the national football league, " announced that nfl players with three or more concussions were significantly more likely to develop clinical depression
, 3 times more likely to develop memory
problems, and 5 times more likely to develop alzheimer disease.
specimens from the brains of deceased nfl players have shown some of the findings of alzheimer and other degenerative neurological conditions.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy has also been described in ice hockey players, professional wrestlers and in participants of other contact sports in which helmets are either routinely worn or not.