What types of diseases are office workers are at risk of other than cardiovascular disease?

Depends. Sedentary can lead to dvt-blood clots, embolism. Carpal tunnel from computer and ergonomics spine issues from posture. Inhalation of irritants, chemicals etc.From whatever the business does.
Infectious. I think in an office environment the most common disease would be the common cold or flu. Most likely viral illnesses will predominate. Workplace injuries such as carpal tunnel and lower back pain are possible. However, each work environment is different and will expose you to various issues.