What conditions cause stabbing pain in teeth?

Cracked tooth? Stabbing pain would most often indicate a cracked tooth. Other possibilities: parafunctional habits like grinding or clenching, loose fillings/crowns, even gum disease.
Multiple causes. Could be a lot of different things. A deep cavity, cracked tooth, loose filling, a filling that is too high, clenching or grinding. You will need to see a dentist for an xray and comprehensive exam to determine the source of your pain and the dentist will develop a treatment plan to address the problem.
Many. Many conditions can cause a stabbing pain in your teeth. If it's a few teeth you probably have cavities or some kind of serious, deep decay. You should see your dentist immediately to get this taken care of before it gets worse.