Should I go see a doctor for a pain in my toe?

I would. Especially if you want to try and resolve the pain.
Have it evaluated. Your pain could be as a result of many different things. Have it evaluated by a professional to see if you have fractured it of if it is just a soft tissue injury such as a contusion or a sprain. You may have injured nerves, blood vesicles, muscles, ligaments or tendons. One would need to do a thorough history and physical exam and possibly some radiology exams to determine the exact cause.
Yes, do not suffer. See a podiatrist. Do not suffer. In most cases treatments can provide relief.