No. Newborn screens are performed with every birth. Not mandated by law but they are highly recommended as they identify inborn errors that can be treated before they cause permanent damage to your infant.
Genetic ? They do not screen the genes of babies. State law in all 50 states have mandatory screening in licensed hospitals for a variety of disorders like PKU or low thyroid that are evident on examining the blood for abnormal levels. The genes themselves could be studied if and when needed but they are not part of the mandated state screens.
Yes. State newborn . screening laws vary in the nature of their mandates & in the number of tests covered, from 4-40. The federal recommendation based on advice from the American College of Medical Genetics is to test for 29 hereditary &/or metabolic conditions, many of which cause Intellectual Disability & poor growth if untreated . Some states allow parents an exemption; others require a religious exemption. .