Do I need to take special precautions in the future if my doctor pierced my colon by mistake during an operation?

Usually not. If the damaged area were repaired or removed then there should not be a problem. However, if the perforation were due to a condition of the colon (colitis, diverticulosis), or medications that weaken the tissue (steroids), then you need to advise the surgeon of these problems.
No. As long as you recovered uneventfully, nothing else is needed. Certainly any surgey can result in adhesion formation (scar tissue).