Which condition is caused by an inflammation of a fallopian tube?

PID. Inflammation or infection of the tube causes a pelvic infection, also terms PID or pelvic inflammatory disease. It can be a very severe infection. Sometimes the tube is chronically inflamed and may be swollen and enlarged, called a hydrosalpinx. Any infection of the cervix, uterus, tubes, appendix, or colon can cause this.
Salpingitis. Salpingitis is inflammation of a fallopian tube. This can result in later blockage - a hydrosalpinx or salpingitis isthmica nodosum (sin) - blockage at the uterus. There are effective treatments for salpingitis - see your gynecologist.