Luteal phase. After ovulation your body enters the luteal phase. This is the time the early developing embryo grows and finds a place to implant. Hormones are devoted to preparing the uterus and endometrial lining for pregnancy.
Many things. After ovulation that part of your ovary starts producing progesterone which makes the uterine lining stop growing, mature and get ready for a baby. It will do this for 2 weeks. In the meantime the egg travels thru the tube where it may get fertilized. If it does, it goes on and implants in the uterus and more progesterone is produced. If not, the fall in progesterone causes the lining to sluff off.
Menses. That would put you close to when your next period starts.
2 choices. Either it is fertilized or is resorbed into body (magically goes away)
Egg after ovulation. It either gets fertilized, or it gets absorbed by the body, or passes thru.