How can doctors investigate couples who are infertile?

Testing. Test for health of sperm and egg, a way for them to find each other, and a healthy uterus for the embryo. This includes evaluation of the menstrual cycles, a semen analysis, vaginal ultrasound, blood test of ovarian reserve, and possibly a hysterosalpingogram.
Tests. Infertility testing involves multiple different things such as ovarian reserve testing, ultrasound, uterine evaluation, assessment of fallopian tubes for patency and also sperm count. The decision for treatment is then based on the results of these above tests.