How are herniated disks treated?

Spine Pain Options. This pain in the distribution as you suggested is the result of an irritated nerve or facet joints or other injury typically in the lumbar spine (low back) which are caused by herniated disks, spinal stenosis or degenerative disc disease, etc requiring further evaluation by a spine specialist and may be candidate for facet injections/radiofrequency ablation and epidural steroid injection.
Various ways. Most are treated successfully with medication, activity modification, and time. People with more severe symptoms may benefit from an injection of artificial cortisone around the nerves. The most severe cases, those which fail to improve, those affecting bladder/bowel emptying, those with significant muscle weakness, those affecting spinal cord (neck and mid back) are removed with surgery.
Herniated discs. By themselves, herniated discs do not need any treatment. They are like a jelly-filled donut that got squeezed, and the jelly escaped. They are imaging finding associated with aging. If a herniated fragment is pushing on nerves and you have pain due to this, physical therapy, stretching and anti-inflammatories can help. Sometimes an injection and if all else fails, surgery can remove the fragment.