Would some type of imaging be needed during a primary care visit to check the progress of a kidney stone?

It depends. Ultrasound is useful if a sotne is in the kidney. However, if a stone is in the ureter, it will not be ssen on ultrasound. Abdominal x-rays can be heloful for calcium stones, but ct scan is the best test when questions remain.
Ultrasound or CT. Ultrasound will demonstrate presence or absence of hydronephrosis (swelling of surine collecting arrea within kidney) without radiation. However ct is better to determine size of kidnet stone ; hence likelihood of spontaneous passage if small enough. Us can then be used to follow to see if obsruction is present ;/or increasing or decreasing. Persistence ; severity of kidney stone pain is useful.
Depends. If you are still having pain, you could be imaged with ultrasound to see if the kidney is dilated (indicating obstruction). A ct is more accurate at locating the stone, but it uses radiation and should be avoided if possible. Urine analysis could identify blood in the urine if the stone is still present.