What is the difference between undermining and tunneling in regards to stage 4 pressure ulcers?

answered:

Pressure ulcer

Pressure_sores
These are characteristics of wounds; they do not need to be pressure ulcers in order to have this type of characteristics. A tunnel is an empty space that can extend in any direction from the wound; undermining is tissue destruction underlying intact skin along wound margins
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Wounds Ulcer Bed sore Skin Tissue Ulceration

Length of tunnel

Bed_sore
Undermining is when a wound diameter is wider at its base (deep in the wound) than at the wound's skin edge. For example, the hole in the skin may be 5mm, but the base of the wound cavity is 10mm. Tunneling is when the wound tracks under the skin to another opening in the skin OR to a deeper cavity. Tunnels are sometimes referred to as a "sinus" or "tract".
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Ulcer Bed sore Sinus Cavity Skin Ulceration

answered:

Complexity

Pressure_sores
These are terms that relate to the complexity of the wound. Other than that they are not terribly important. Undermining refers to the extent to which the skin is separated from the underlying tissues. Tunneling is more of a connection between two openings through such a separation.
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Bed sore Peptic ulcer Separated Skin Tissue Ulcer Ulceration Wounds