Can anyone have "nerve damage" pain after a past spinal fusion surgery?

Yes. Failed back surgery syndrome ihappens in up to 1/3 of back surgery (and neck surgery patients). Injury to nerves during surgery happens in some of these cases.
Yes. Neuropathic pain can be associated with conditions before and after spinal fusion procedures. No surgery is perfect and sometimes nerve pain can continue or worsen after intervention. There are options to deal with these pains, and are considered on a case by case basis to determine the appropriate treatment options.