Less invasive. Pro: less invasive (small incision, less tissue disturbance), maybe faster recovery (hard to prove) con: more x-ray exposure, fewer surgeons competent in technique, may or may not prove more effective than conventional surgery both it and conventional share surgical risks: infection, bleeding, continued symptoms, relapse, nerve or blood vessel problems, etc.
Multiple. Most spine surgeries have risks and benefits, most often based upon peer reviewed literature. "laser" spine procedures are promoted to cause less pain due to minimal incision lengths. I have seen patients treated in these facilities who do report pain relief, but also I have revised bad outcomes from laser surgery. Talk to your doctor and check credentials via abms. (www. Abms. Org).