How long can you be taking pain pills after back surgery?

As long as indicates. Depends on several issues. Includes your use/abuse of medication & duration preop, the extent of your surgery & for what diagnosis it was done, whether there were any complications as well as how you are healing &/or fusing. Was there any nerve/spinal cord issues, was bone graft harvested & do you smoke. Are you getting any side effects from medication? The list goes on. Speak to your surgeon.