Long term effects of radiation therapy for breast cancer vs surgery?

Mulltiple. Long term effects of radiation therapy for breast cancer include: radiation fibrosis of lung lymphedema of the affected side upper extremity myocardial injury hypothyroidism brachial plexus injury risk of second neoplasm (radiation induced malignancy).
Very different. If you mean lumpectomy + radiation - the main side effects are some shrinkage of the breast in most cases and some firmness. Some patients have occasional breast pain, but usually not too bad. If the nodes inn the armpit are removed, swelling of the arm may be a possibility.
Very tolerable today. Long term side effects from breast radiation are much less likely with modern techniques today as opposed to techniques used just nine or ten years ago. It also depends on the doctors skill sets and equipment. It also depends upon whether or not the XRT is only to the breast or also needs i include the lymph nodes under arm and above collar bone. Mostly cosmetic with increased density of breast.