There are several. Tests utilized separately for glaucoma and for cataract evaluation. For glaucoma: eye pressure, Slitlamp examination of the eye focusing on the optic nerve, gonioscopy to look at the angle structures, visual field test to look for subtle patterns of vision loss, a retinal nerve fiber layer analyzer to evaluate patterns of nerve loss, and fundus photos to monitor for change in optic nerve.
They differ. Cataract: best corrected visual acuity, dilated eye exam evaluating clarity of natural lens, sometimes glare testing, intraocular lens measurements and calculations. Glaucoma: dilated eye exam focusing on the optic nerves, intraocular pressure testing, pachymetry (corneal thickness), hrt/oct testing (sophisticated nerve and retinal imaging), visual field testing (checking peripheral vision).
Routine exam. A general eye checkup will look for cataracts and glaucoma. Typically they are best evaluated with a dilated fundus exam to look at the lens and corresponding visual acuity, as well as checking the eye pressure and seeing if the optic nerve is "cupped" and any gross peripheral vision defects. Once something is found, further detailed testing may be performed to check visual significance.
Annual exam. Both of these tests are part of your annual eye exam: glaucoma - eye pressure testing. Cataracts - refraction and dilation to check the lens.