Does wearing polarized sunglasses protect your eyes from welding?

No. Welding produces high intensity uv irradiation which can cause terrific burns of the cornea (a sort of advanced sunburn). There are plenty of special lenses to protect the eyes during welding but polarized or any other type of ordinary sunglasses will not provide enough blockage to protect the eyes. Your welding supply store can supply the correct lenses and they should be present at work.
NO. They are much too light - you need approved welding glasses. Don't risk your vision!