Can taurine from vitamin water cause renal failure?

Quite the Opposite. In 2009 there was a conference on taurine. I just read some of the proceedings of that conference along with an extensive review of the renal effects of taurine. Taurine protects the kidney from all kinds of potential insults such as glomerulonephritis, diabetes as well as acute and chronic renal failure. So, taurine has an overall beneficial role to play in the kidney.
No. Taurine is found in meat, fish and health supplements. Taurine is removed by the kidneys and there is paucity of toxicological data when it comes to consuming very high amounts. Its not possible to consume enough taurine through vitamin water and theoretically risk of toxicity should be low.