What diseases or conditions commonly lead to needing a kidney transplantation?

Kidney failure . The most common causes of severe kidney failure are diabetes and high blood pressure.Less common causes are kidney toxins, especially medications, or inflammation caused by systemic diseases or idiopathic kidney inflammation.The kidneys do tend to wear out over time due to aging, especially for those with cardiovascular disease, but in that condition it is usually other insults that make it bad.
DM, HTN, PKD. In the U.S., most patients who end up with renal failure suffer from hypertension and/or diabetes. Polycystic kidney disease patients as well as patients who suffer from automimune diseases (e.g. lupus) will often end up with ESRD (end stage renal disease).
Diabetes/HTN. Diabetes and hypertension are the most common reasons for kidney transplant in the United States. Less common reasons are genetic kidney disease, toxic injury to kidneys, severe trauma to kidneys, anatomic problems or removal of kidneys for other reasons.