Could lumbar fusion neurosurgery cause periperal neuropathy?

No unless. No, the surgery cannot but if positioned too long or if areas are not adequately protected or both a compression neuropathy can develop. In the arms , usually the ulnar nerve is impacted. Occasionally, straps used to secure a patient to the or table can create a similar issue in the legs affecting the peroneal nerve or even across the anterior pelvis from certain support devices during surgery.