4 stages. Stage i is a localized tumor without spread to other organs or the lymph nodes. Stage ii is a deeper tumor, into the muscular layers of the bowel or even outside the bowel, but not spread to distant organs or lymph nodes. Stage iii is a tumor that has involved the lymph nodes, but not distant organs. Stage IV is spread of tumor to organs far from the rectum, such as liver or lungs.
Rectal cancer. Staging for rectal cancer depend on depth of tumor, nodal involvement and spread to other organs. Early stage( stage1), smaller tumor without involvement of nodes. Stage 2&3 deeper tumor and involvement of nodes and late stage( stage 4), when it spread to other organs.