Is there such a thing as a sports hernia?

Yes, but. Sports hernia is an ill defined entity usually used to describe groin pain in an athlete with or without a hernia. The term athletic pubalgia is probably a better term to be used. Additionally, since there is no uniform diagnosis, treatment types are not uniform, and include surgical and non surgical options depending on the specific case. See someone that specializes in sports hernias.
Yes. A sports hernia is a much more significant injury than a standard run-of-the-mill inguinal (groin) hernia. The damage is usually much more significant. I have seen several of these during my career and they are very difficult to fix properly. Nerves tend to be damaged, floor of the inguinal canal instead of being weakened is torn, and the sports hernia can encompass several layers instead of one.