Yes. There are 2 gene mutations, brca1 and brca2, which have been discovered and which substantially increase one's risk of getting breast cancer. Since breast cancer tends to run in families, there are probably many other gene mutations which haven't been discovered yet. But most women who get breast cancer do not have a family history, so it is likely that there are other factors besides genes.
Yes. While the majority of breast cancer is unrelated to the known breast cancer causing genes. About 11% of breast cancer is due to mutation in one of two genes called brca 1 and brca 2. Women having a mutation in these genes are at a higher risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer.
Still searching. Treatments for breast cancer are evolving. There are better ways to treat today when compared with 10 years ago. Early detection is the key to better outcomes.
No! Many patients with breast cancer have no genetic predisposition or risk for breast cancer. However, there are several genetic markers which increase the risk of developing breast cancer over a person's lifetime.
Yes and no. We all have the brca genes in our dna. God (or evolution, your choice) put it there with the purpose of repairing damaged dna, destroying dna that can't be repaired, and other things. When it's mutated (changed) in certain places, it does not work and leads to the development of cancer. Only a small number of breast cancer patients inherit such deleterious or "bad" mutations.
Yes, and no. We all have the genes named brca, but we don't all have mutations in those genes. It's the brca mutations that increase the risk for breast cancer. It turns out that 85% of breast cancers have nothing to do with the brca gene. So most patients with breast cancer do not have a brca1 or brca2 mutation. I hope that answers your question!
Low incidence. Approximately 1 in 40 ashkenazi jewish women have a brca mutation. It also is seen in other isolated populations. A brca1 mutation can be inherited from a mother or father and is associated with up to a 80% lifetime risk of breast cancer and a 40 % risk of ovarian cancer options include increased surveillance chemo prevention or risk reduction surgery.
Family history. It depends on your family history. If you do not have cancer yourself, you may still carry the gene. If a parent, sibling, grandparent or aunt/uncle has had ovarian cancer, breast cancer before age 45, or if any male relatives have had breast cancer, or if anyone in your family is known to carry a brca mutation, you may be at risk. Ask your doctor if genetic counseling is recommended.
Risky! Women w/ 2+ immediate family members w/ a hx of breast/ovarian CA at 50% chance of developing breast cancer. If you have it, get screened with CA-125 blood test, ultrasound, mammogram/MRI, usually starting at age 30. Surgery after childbearing.
Blood test. It is a blood test to look for the rare brca gene to see if there are increased ridks of breast or ovarian cancer. Is only found in 5% of women for increased breast cancer risk. See: http://www. Mayoclinic. Com/health/brca-gene-test/my00322.
BRAC Analysis. As many as 10-15% of breast cancers in the us are believed to be hereditary. These are linked to mutations of a particular group of genes called the brca genes. There is a simple blood test to check to see if someone has a brca mutation. I advise my interested patients to see a genetic counselor to fully understand the ramifications of this test before having it done.
Ask your MD. He is your best reference.
We're Getting There. In the past, we used anatomic staging alone (tumor size, lymph node involvement) to guide rx. Gene profiling allows us a completely separate measure of prognosis, and, more importantly, can predict who may or may not benefit from different chemotherapy agents. In the future, we will hopefully be able to tailor our rx to the specific cancer being treated: the elusive personalized medicine.
Can't do in 400. The study of micro-rnas is cutting-edge and extremely arcane and you need to go directly to pubmed or one of the other big ways to access the scientific data. If someone is offering a breast cancer treatment to re-regulate your micro-rna's, call your district attorney. Glad you have an inquiring mind and I wish you luck with your project.
Difficult. To answer here. Review with her family doctor for referrals. See a medical geneticist. If truly concerned see a medical oncologist to see if there are medications (anti-estrogen hormones) to try. If very concerned or very high risk, sometimes mastectomy and plastic surgery reconstruction is considered.