The current polio. Vaccine in the usa is an inactivated (killed) virus vaccine.
2 types. There are two types of polio vaccines in the world. The oral type is a live-virus vaccine, but is no longer used in the U.S. Since domestic cases of polio no longer occur (because of the success of the oral polio vaccination program). We use the "inactivated" polio vaccine, which is not alive, and is given as a shot. The shot cannot cause polio disease.
Injected/killed. The live weakened oral polio vaccine was the USA standard from the late early 60's until the early 90's. There was a low, but real risk of polio (1/1-2 million doses) with the oral vaccine that was not present with the enhanced injected vaccine. By the late 90's, the oral polio vaccine was not available to most physicians and the injected became the standard.
Stimulating immunity. The vaccine prevents spread of the poliovirus from the gastrointestinal tract to the nervous system where paralytic disease develops.
Polio Vaccine. Rotary clubs efforts to eradicate polio from this world have been very successful as cases of polio in countries like india has almost been wiped out due to vaccination.
Polio vaccine. Is safe and effective.
Immune response. All vaccines expose the body's immune system to viral protein or an attenuated strain of the virus, neither of which cause illness. The immune system reacts against the new protein and you become immunized by a defense cell memory of that protein which prevents infection in the future. Polio vaccine works in the same way.
Polio. Started in 1948 & rewarded for discovery in 1955.
Little more to say. There were some cases of polio early on (the cutter incident) and mostly theoretical issues with sv40 contamination but the original killed polio vaccine stopped paralytic polio in its tracks.
Mostly. Not completely, as there are still pockets of polio infections on earth. However, the incidence of polio is essentially close to zero thanks to the effectiveness of the vaccine. There is no other reason for that improvement.
Mostly. Wild type poliomyelitis virus still circulates in some areas of the world but is almost never acquired elsewhere.
MostOfTheWorldExcept. Polio Vaccine has been successful in getting rid of Polio all over the world except in Pakistan, Afganistan and Nigeria only due to treistance to vaccinate their children.
Many places. Doctors offices, community health clinics, public health department, local pharmacies.
Pediatricians/Health. Polio vaccine is available in any Pediatrician's office and your Health Department Clinic Most Internist do not have it as the vaccine is only given before 6 years of age.