VNS. is a wonderful device used to treat refractory seizures and depression. About the size of half an Oreo Cookie it is placed under the skin by a skilled surgeon. A thin wire sends a tiny current intermittently to the brain by way of the left Vagus Nerve in the neck. My patients who are lucky enough to have one report overwhelmingly a vast improvement in their lives. They are made in Houston Tx.
For Seizures or Mood. Vns may be used to treat seizures or depression. Insurance only covers its exorbitant cost for treatment of seizures ($30k). The vagus nerve seems to have connections throughout the brain so by stimulating it, you may stimulate many different brain areas. It's thought this relieves depression. About 1/3 of the most severe cases of depression get better w/ this treatment.