How are pancytopenia and myelodysplastic syndrome differentiated?

Bone Marrow Biopsy. Pancytopenia is a clinical condition that can be caused by a variety of diseases such as aplastic anemia, myelodysplasia, drug toxicity. Myelodysplasia is a clinical syndrome that may manifest itself as pancytopenia. A bone marrow biopsy is the only way to tell what is going on.
See below... They are not. Pancytopenia is one of the consistent features of a myelodysplastic syndrome. It can affect all cell lines in the peripheral blood (pancytopenia) or only some of them (cytopenia or cytopenias). If you are asking about the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia, other clinical conditions can be associated with it like aplastic anemia and even leukemia.