Lower urinary tract. When a urologist uses a cystoscope, the inside of the bladder and urethra are inspected. Irregularities in the urinary tract lining, tumors, stones, inflammation, muscular thickening, & outpouchings called cellules & diverticula are seen. The ureteral orificies, or the outflow from the kidneys, are visible. In males, the inside of the prostate, and nodular enlargement can be seen.