Depends on disease. Thalassemia and sickle cell disease are the two most common hemoglobinopathies. They both have very different symptoms. Thal patients may have symptoms of anemia like feeling tired and some may need life long blood transfusions. Sickle patients may have pain crisis, infections, chest crisis, strokes, chronic organ damage. .
Maybe none. Hemoglobinopathies if not symptomatic yeild no symptoms. Otherwise it depends on the hemoglobiuinopathy. If sicklle cell pain in the joints and small vessel are paramount, with thalassemia fatigue anemias but if you have been told you have thiese plese have your physicain explain them to you. Many people are carriers of the hemoglobinopathies and are not likely ever to be symptomatic.