Sweetness . Aka hemoglobin a1c, is the most specific and sensitive test widely available to detect not only diabetes, but also how well or not controlled it is. There are other research level labs being looked at, a we are trying to figure out as early as possible who is pre diabetic, so we can aggressively go after your risks. Diet, exercise, are still the mainstay of treatment. Fda has not approved meds.