Would taking a vitamin b supplement with a centrum tablet cause problems?

Unlikely. All the vitamins in the b group are water soluble. What your body doesn't use immediately, it tends to wash out in the urine fairly quickly, so it's pretty hard to take a toxic dose of any of these except b6 which can cause neuropathy if taken in large doses over a long period of time. Bottom line: unless you're taking handfuls of b6 with your centrum, problems are unlikely.