What is african sleeping sickness?

Bloodborne illness. African sleeping sickness is serious blood borne disease transmitted by the tsetse fly which can be lethal. East african trypanosomiasis is caused by trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. West african trypanosomiasis (gambian sleeping sickness) is caused by trypanosoma brucei gambiense. There is no geographic overlap.
Sleep. This is a disease that is essentially limited to sub-saharan africa by the vector that transmits the disease the tsetse fly. The disease is caused by a parasite. Disease management is first and foremost avoidance of endemic areas, if you must travel to these countries - see the cdc website, then speak with your physician about options for treatment to carry with you, as well as other vaccinations.