My ears are ringing after listening to music. Are my ears permanetly damaged, or just temporary?

Possibly. If the volume is too loud with head phones or ear buds like an ipod etc. Then you can very definitely damage your hearing esp. High frequency. The volume should never be so loud that it causes you to not hear someone trying to talk to you or that causes ringing in ears immediately afterwards. Rock concerts can be esp. Bad for this - wearing ear plugs is probably the best way to prevent damage here.