Thoracic Surgeon. Thoracic surgeons are specialized in surgery of all structures inside the thorax. Heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus, lungs, chest wall, aorta, sternum, to include some.
Depends. A chest surgeon handles problems related to diseases involving the heart, lungs, esophagus, chest wall, and great vessels that are better treated surgically, such as early lung cancer, esophageal cancer, coronary artery disease, etc. Although surgically oriented, most good chest surgeons are also capable of handling most of these problems medically. Pays to be well trained.